Characterization of non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin of non-toxigenic vibrio cholerae O1 and its relevance to disease
The non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin which causes dramatic cell rounding of cultured HeLa cells was purified to homogeneity from a clinical strain (WO5) of non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba belonging to the E1 Tor biotype. The purified protein has a denatured molecular weight of 35 kDa and a native molecular weight of approximately 37 kDa indicating the monomeric nature of the protein. The 15 N-terminal amino acid sequence of non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin showed complete homology to the hemagglutinin protease previously purified and characterized from V. cholerae O1. Purified non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin from V. cholerae O1 was immunologically and biochemically identical to that previously purified from V. cholerae O26. Non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin was found to be enterotoxic in rabbit ileal loop assay inducing accumulation of non-hemorrhagic fluid at 100 micrograms and elicited a concentration dependent increase in short circuit current and tissue conductance of rabbit ileal mucosa mounted on Ussing chambers. A significant serum immunoglobulin G response against non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin was elicited by patients infected with V. cholerae O139 but not with V. cholerae O1. These properties make non-membrane-damaging cytotoxin a potential virulence factor of V. cholerae which should be taken into consideration while making live, attenuated recombinant vaccine strains against cholera.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 1998 Dec 15;169(2):331-9